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BRENDA KEGG MetaCyc

carotenoid biosynthesis (BRENDA)

:= BRENDA, := KEGG, := MetaCyc, := SABIO-RK
:= amino acid sequences := show the reaction diagram
EC Number
Reaction
Pathways
Reaction IDs
Stoichiometry Check
Missing Substrate
Missing Product
Commentary
Remark
violaxanthin + L-ascorbate = antheraxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
BR48596 show the reaction diagram
R07178 show the reaction diagram
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: first step of two-step reaction (see R10055, R07178+R07179)
: Along with EC 1.14.13.90, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of CPD1F-130 in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as CPD1F-133, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga TAX-13608 only the diepoxides are good substrates.
natural substrates
violaxanthin de-epoxidase
violaxanthin + L-ascorbate = antheraxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
BR48596 show the reaction diagram
R07178 show the reaction diagram
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-
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: first step of two-step reaction (see R10055, R07178+R07179)
: Along with EC 1.14.13.90, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of CPD1F-130 in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as CPD1F-133, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga TAX-13608 only the diepoxides are good substrates.
natural substrates
zeaxanthin epoxidase
antheraxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR48605 show the reaction diagram
R06947 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
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: zeaxanthin epoxidase second step of two-step reaction (see R10070, R06946+R06947)
: A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.10.99.3, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
natural substrates, generic, protein
antheraxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR48605 show the reaction diagram
R06947 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
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-
: zeaxanthin epoxidase second step of two-step reaction (see R10070, R06946+R06947)
: A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.10.99.3, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
natural substrates, generic, protein
violaxanthin de-epoxidase
antheraxanthin + L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
BR48597 show the reaction diagram
R07179 show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
: second step of two-step reaction (see R10055, R07178+R07179)
: Along with EC 1.14.13.90, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of CPD1F-130 in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as CPD1F-133, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga TAX-13608 only the diepoxides are good substrates.
natural substrates
antheraxanthin + L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
BR48597 show the reaction diagram
R07179 show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
: second step of two-step reaction (see R10055, R07178+R07179)
: Along with EC 1.14.13.90, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of CPD1F-130 in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as CPD1F-133, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga TAX-13608 only the diepoxides are good substrates.
natural substrates
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR48604 show the reaction diagram
R06946 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: zeaxanthin epoxidase first step of two-step reaction (see R10070, R06946+R06947)
: A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.10.99.3, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
natural substrates, generic, protein
zeaxanthin epoxidase
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR48604 show the reaction diagram
R06946 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: zeaxanthin epoxidase first step of two-step reaction (see R10070, R06946+R06947)
: A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.10.99.3, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49603 show the reaction diagram
R07559 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
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: the second step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49603 show the reaction diagram
R07559 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the second step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49603 show the reaction diagram
R07559 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the second step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49603 show the reaction diagram
R07559 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the second step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase
beta-carotene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49602 show the reaction diagram
R07558 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the first step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-carotene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49602 show the reaction diagram
R07558 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the first step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-carotene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49602 show the reaction diagram
R07558 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the first step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
beta-carotene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
BR49602 show the reaction diagram
R07558 show the reaction diagram
generic compounds
-
-
: the first step of two-step reaction (see R09747, R07558+R07559)
: Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a β-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate. The enzyme catalyzes two successive reactions. The overall reaction is RXN1F-152
natural substrates, generic, protein
lycopene beta-cyclase
gamma-carotene = beta-carotene
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: lycopene cyclase (see R05341)
: This enzyme catalyzes two reactions: RXN1F-150 RXN1F-151 Requires NAD(P)H. Also acts on neurosporene to give β-zeacarotene. The hydrogen introduced at C-2 is from water not NAD(P)H.
natural substrates
lycopene beta-cyclase
lycopene = gamma-carotene
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: lycopene cyclase (see R03824)
: This enzyme catalyzes two reactions: RXN1F-150 RXN1F-151 Requires NAD(P)H. Also acts on neurosporene to give β-zeacarotene. The hydrogen introduced at C-2 is from water not NAD(P)H.
natural substrates
carotenoid epsilon hydroxylase
zeinoxanthin + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = lutein + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
BR52468 show the reaction diagram
R07531 show the reaction diagram
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natural substrates, generic, protein
lycopene beta-cyclase
delta-carotene = alpha-carotene
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: lycopene beta cyclase
natural substrates
lycopene epsilon-cyclase
lycopene = delta-carotene
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: lycopene epsilon cyclase
: The enzyme catalyzes the following two reactions: RXN1F-147 |FRAME:RXN-8028| In most organisms only δ-carotene is formed.
natural substrates
prolycopene isomerase
7,9,7',9'-tetracis-lycopene = all-trans-lycopene
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: carotenoid isomerase(crtH,crtISO)
natural substrates
9,9'-dicis-zeta-carotene desaturase
7,9,9'-tricis-neurosporene + a quinone = 7,9,7',9'-tetracis-lycopene + a quinol
BR49639 show the reaction diagram
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natural substrates, generic
9,9'-dicis-zeta-carotene desaturase
9,9'-dicis-zeta-carotene + a quinone = 7,9,9'-tricis-neurosporene + a quinol
BR49638 show the reaction diagram
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natural substrates, generic
zeta-carotene isomerase
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene = 9,9'-dicis-zeta-carotene
BR49728 show the reaction diagram
R09655 show the reaction diagram
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: This reaction can occur spontaneously in the light. In the dark it has to be catalyzed enzymatically.
natural substrates
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinone = 9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + plastoquinol
BR49668 show the reaction diagram
R09654 show the reaction diagram
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: This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [11714315]. This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is RXN-11355
natural substrates
15-cis-phytoene desaturase
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinone = 9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + plastoquinol
BR49668 show the reaction diagram
R09654 show the reaction diagram
-
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: This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [11714315]. This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is RXN-11355
natural substrates
15-cis-phytoene desaturase
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone = 15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinol
BR49667 show the reaction diagram
R09653 show the reaction diagram
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-
-
: This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [11714315]. This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is RXN-11355
natural substrates
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone = 15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinol
BR49667 show the reaction diagram
R09653 show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
: This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [11714315]. This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is RXN-11355
natural substrates
15-cis-phytoene synthase
prephytoene diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + diphosphate
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: a part of multi-step reaction (see R10177, R02065+R04218); see R07916
natural substrates
prephytoene diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + diphosphate
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: a part of multi-step reaction (see R10177, R02065+R04218); see R07916
natural substrates
lycopene elongase/hydratase (dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming)
dimethylallyl diphosphate + all-trans-lycopene + H2O = dihydroisopentenyldehydrorhodopin + diphosphate
BR52589 show the reaction diagram
R12285 show the reaction diagram
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: CPD-18006 = CPD-18007
natural substrates
1-hydroxy-2-isopentenylcarotenoid 3,4-desaturase
dihydroisopentenyldehydrorhodopin + acceptor = isopentenyldehydrorhodopin + reduced acceptor
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natural substrates, generic
lycopene elongase/hydratase (dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming)
dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyldehydrorhodopin + H2O = dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin + diphosphate
BR52590 show the reaction diagram
R12286 show the reaction diagram
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: CPD-18006 = CPD-18007
natural substrates
1-hydroxy-2-isopentenylcarotenoid 3,4-desaturase
dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin + acceptor = bisanhydrobacterioruberin + reduced acceptor
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natural substrates, generic
monoanhydrobacterioruberin = bisanhydrobacterioruberin + H2O
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natural substrates
bisanhydrobacterioruberin hydratase
monoanhydrobacterioruberin = bisanhydrobacterioruberin + H2O
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natural substrates
bisanhydrobacterioruberin hydratase
bacterioruberin = monoanhydrobacterioruberin + H2O
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natural substrates
bacterioruberin = monoanhydrobacterioruberin + H2O
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natural substrates